Hyoid – Anatomy
Hyoid is a Lingual bone, U-shaped, in front of neck, between larynx (behind) and mandible (in front), at level of C3; made up of body (transverse), greater horns/cornus (long, pointing back), lesser cornus/horns (short, pointing up); suspended from tips of styloid processes of mandible by ligaments (this syndesmotic connection being its only bony articulation); anchored by multiple muscle attachments (up to geniohyoid, hypoglossus, digastric, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, middle pharyngeal constrictor, down to thyrohyoid, omohyoid, sternohyoid) to tongue and floor mouth above, larynx below, epiglottis and pharynx behind.
Involved in relative bracing and movement of larynx, pharynx, skull (mandible and cranium), during tongue movement, deglutition (swallowing), phonation (speech and other sound production).
Hyoid fractures occur in one third of adult homicides involving strangulation (flexible during ossification to adolescence).
When put hand around throat, thumb and index finger rest along greater horns hyoid.
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