Anatomy of Sun Cancer

July is all about sun safety. With summer newly arrived in the Northern Hemisphere, our thoughts turn to “fun-in-the-sun” times. The new swim suit, a trip to the park, sand buckets for the kids, and—oh, yes—don’t forget the sunscreen!

July is “UV Safety Month” in the U.S. So what exactly does “UV safety” mean? And what is UV radiation? Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation whose main source on Earth is from the sun. Manmade sources include tanning beds and welding torches. UV rays have more energy than the rays that produce visible light. Scientists have divided UV rays into three ranges: UVA (weakest); UVB (more intense); and UVC (the strongest). UVA and UVB rays are thought to be the ones to cause changes in the skin that may lead to skin cancer. UVC rays react with ozone and never make it to Earth.

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Anatomy of Safety

Safety, around since the 1300s, can be defined as the freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury, danger, or loss; or the quality of averting or not causing injury.

These same concepts can be incorporated into a word that came onto the scene about 200 years later: prevention. Safety and prevention are inextricably linked, and while health practitioners and researchers may use them in different contexts, they are simply different sides of the same coin. By preventing injuries and loss, we are practicing safety. By following personal safety measures in the home, workplace, school, and while driving, we are practicing prevention.

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The Air We Breathe

The air we breathe—the air that supports all life—can also be the vehicle for introducing toxic pollutants into our lungs, leading to illness and death. Each day, around the globe, millions of people are exposed to airborne particles that have the potential to alter their state of health. Air pollution, whether from particles introduced from industry or from the end product of tobacco combustion, can lead to various lung conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; chronic bronchitis and emphysema), asthma, and cancer in adults, and lower respiratory infections in children. Both indoor air pollution and urban (outdoor) air pollution put children at increased risk of disease, as their lungs are developmentally immature.

May is the month that draws attention to these potential hazards and how they affect our health: May 31 is the World Health Organization’s No Tobacco Day, celebrated globally every year since 1987. In addition, the U.S. has observed Clean Air Month in May since 1994, before which it had been celebrated by the American Lung Association as Clean Air week (since 1972).

Video Credit: “Smoking Stinks” – Research carried out by Dr. Robbin Cohen, Medical Director for the thoracic oncology program at the Huntington Memorial Hospital.
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Review by Student Physician Associate

I first received the Pocket Anatomy app back in 2012 from my parents for university. I studied a Human Biology degree which included modules on the Musculoskeletal System and Anatomy & Physiology. I couldn’t recommend the apps enough, especially the Pocket Heart & Pocket Anatomy to healthcare professionals, or healthcare/medical students.

Paris Smith – Student Physician Associate

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Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve

Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve / 3D image and Description

Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve / 3D image and Description

Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve – Anatomy

Course
A continuation of the musculocutaneous nerve in the arm. This nerve becomes the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve once it has emerged from between the biceps brachii and the brachialis muscle, lateral to the biceps brachii tendon, passing behind the cephalic vein. It then divides into two branches, both of which run distally along the radial forearm. [···]

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Anatomy of Social & Sexual Health

April: In an interesting and significant coincidence, April is celebrated in the U.S. and several other countries as an awareness month for the following social and sexual health topics: use and mis-use of alcohol,  sexual assault awareness, and sexually transmitted diseases. These three more “social” topics and the places where they intersect are the themes of this blog. At the crux of this intersection is risk-taking behavior. Behavior that can have a devastating effect on the physical and emotional wellbeing of its targets.

[Poster Credit: NCADD.org]

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World Health Day

Health can be defined in several ways, from the very narrow consideration of the absence of disease: “healthy cells” that function in a body to keep that body working to its maximum capacity and capability, to the broader sense of “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”

And what we perceive as healthy is that which is conducive to health, to the promotion of health, the general condition of the body and mind with reference to soundness and vigor.

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Ala of sacrum

Ala of Sacrum / 3D image and Description

Ala of Sacrum / 3D image and Description

Ala of Sacrum anatomy

Ala of sacrum is a large triangular surface either side of sacral base, continuous with iliac fossa (akin to adapted and joined transverse and costal processes elsewhere spine).

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Omohyoid

Omohyoid / 3D image and Description

Omohyoid / 3D image and Description

Omohyoid Anatomy

Origin:
Superior border of scapula medial to suprascapular notch.

Insertion:
Body of hyoid bone.

Key Relations:

  • Is one of the infrahyoid muscles (sometimes referred to as ‘strap muscles’) lying in the muscular triangle of the neck.
  • Lateral to sternohyoid.
Functions

Depresses and fixes the hyoid bone.

Supply

Nerve Supply:
Anterior rami of C1 to C3 through the ansa cervicalis.

Blood Supply:

  • Superior thyroid artery
  • Lingual artery
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Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa

Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa / 3D image and Description

Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa / 3D image and Description

Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Anatomy

Subcutaneous Prepatellar Bursa is situated in front of the patella bone.

Functions

Acts as a cushion between bone and skin reducing friction between both.

Clinical

Prepatellar bursitis or ‘housemaid’s knee’ is a common injury to the bursa. The bursa becomes swollen due to repetitive work in a kneeling position.

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